RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER PUMPING SOLUTIONS: A FARMER’S GUIDE

Smallholder farmers contribute about 60% of the global food produced. In most parts of the world, these farmers rely on rain fed farming, a scenario that leads to one growing season in a whole year. This results to low productivity for the farmers as they have to wait for the rainy season in order to grow their crops.


Countries that have succeeded in agriculture and food production have prioritized irrigation in their farming activities, ensuring an all year farming season, supplementing periods of no rainfall.
For more sustainable agri-food systems, irrigation has to be incorporated, ensuring water availability all year round. Sub-saharan African countries have good arable land, suitable for farming and able to support the growth of different crop varieties as well as water bodies and sources which can be utilized for irrigation.
In as much as irrigation farming is key in ensuring food security, all year farming and zero hunger, choosing the right pump for your needs is the prerequisite.
PUMP SELECTION
In selecting a pump for your farming activities, you have to:

  1. WATER SOURCE IDENTIFICATION
    Knowing your water source is key in determining the type of water pump to be used. Water can be sourced from a river, stream (surface)and a drilled borehole(underground).
    2.DAILY WATER NEEDS
    Basing on the crops being grown and other activities requiring water, total daily water demand has to be calculated.
    3.PUMP TYPE BASED ON WATER SOURCE
    for surface water sources, surface water pumps are ideal, and for underground water source, submersible pumps are to be used. Submersible pumps are mainly submerged in drilled boreholes with water piping system connected.
  2. FLOW RATE
    It is important to find out the flow rate of the well in submersible water pump systems, which is the amount of water flowing through the pipe connected to the pump at a given time span and can be calculated in Liters/second or Liters /minute or cubic meters per hour.
    4.TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD
    The to talk dynamic head is calculated by determining the distance from surface to water level when pumping, the pressure at pump discharge and drops pipe friction as well as valve(s).
    For water storage purposes, tanks are used. In such a set up, water is pumped into the funk which usually rest on an elevated flat surface and then distributed to the farm using gravity force. It is recommended that you use a pressure tank in order to build the pressure of the water being delivered.
Solar powered pump

Look out for the next blog on how to size a solar water pumping system and the available solar water pumps.

SOLAR SYSTEM DESIGN THINKING:CUSTOMER NEED POINT OF VIEW

House roof with solar panels

The global Energy mix has experienced a rise in production and use of Renewable Energy Technologies, with solar power equipment topping the list. Notable companies and organizations are going green, opting for solar energy as the main source for power in their office buildings and equipment there in. This is in line with the Sustainable Development Goal number 7:Affordable and Clean Energy. Not only big companies are replacing their Diesel/petrol powered generators With solar powered systems but also home owners are opting for the new, clean source on energy for their power needs. A solar photovoltaic system can be used either as backup, or stand alone system powering a house or used for irrigation and water pumping.

Of late, many home-owners have raised the reliability of solar home based systems with the main concern being that the system does provide power for a few hours and goes off, and in a Sub-Saharan Africa set up, it turns not to fulfil the desired backup Electricity when the grid goes off during load shedding and in villages where access to electricity is but a dream to many.

But what really causes the system not to perform to its full capacity as desired by the user?

Solar Home System

Lack of qualified personnel in sizing, designing and installing solar home systems is the main reason. Most proprietors fot Solar Home systems are only interested in making the sale and at the same time, a majority of home owners are excited about having solar powered electricity installed without taking Considering the factors that will contribute to the effective and efficient performance of the system, and as a result, the system is under-sized and people turn to look down on solar power.

So what are the factors that one has to consider to get a Solar Home System with optimum performance?

  1. Energy Audit
    To avoid being deceived, a customer(home-owner) must be able to calculate the amount of electricity in Kilowatt hours(Kwh) used each month and in a year. After that, power rating for each appliance has to be recorded to find out which appliance needs more power and which one has the lower rating.

CRITICAL LOAD(APPLIANCE) ANALYSIS

Once the Energy audit is done, a customer must now have a clear picture as to which appliances consume alot of electricity based on the power rating and the time in hours those appliance are in use and which appliances do not consume alot of electricity. This forms the basis in selecting the appliances that can be connected to a solar home system. As a customer, it is important to note that the initial cost for a solar home system is high and so, determining and selecting critical appliances and loads to be powered is vital. One can start small and and add loads(appliances) to the system by increasing its Generation and output capacity to match the additional loads power demands.

SOLAR HOME SYSTEM DESIGN
Reaching this far, a customer is now in a position of choosing which appliances to use, and for how many hours per day to be powered by the solar system. A qualified personnel has to be engaged to help the customer come up with the optimum solar home system solution.

The customer has to select the loads to be powered by the system and the number of hours the selected appliance will be used in orde to come up with the total daily energy demand. Once this is calculated, the designer then using the Current rating parameter of the solar panels available comes up with s figure for the number of panels required for the appliances selected. Since solar panels produce DC voltage, an Inverter is required to convert DC voltage to AC voltage which most home loads/appliances use. The system also requires a charge controller that regulates the amount of charge going to the battery bank so that the batteries do not overcharge. It must be noted that some inverters do have built in charge controllers.

Night fall, what Happens?
Solar power is dependent on availability of the sun.
In-order to have uninterrupted power supply at Night, a batter bank has to be in-corperated to store the electricity produced during the day. Clarity must be made during system design calculations in-order to store and get enough power to be used at Night for the specified number of hours.

Only those appliances/loads selected during the system design should be used and connected. if appliances not specified during the selection stage are plugged in, more power is withdrawn and so, can only sustain the system for a few hours less than those used during the design stage and so the system fails as more power is being consumed that it is being produced. In cases where new appliances are to be introduced, the customer has to consult the system designer so that it gets upgraded to match the new electricity needs.

PROFITS FROM THE SUN: THE ROOFTOP ECONOMY

21st century it is, and despite an upsurge in
electricity access as well as the development of technologies that generate electricity, nearly 573 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa are yet to access electricity, the largest access deficit globally. With most families living on almost a dollar per day, electricity is viewed as a luxury on their priority list since the cost is high as compared to conventional energy sources, yet to foster economic growth and sustainability, electricity plays a major role. Electricity is not an end in itself but a means to an end in various sectors such as health, industry and manufacturing among others.

Net metering

The introduction of Inclusive business models, policies and incentives that promote use of Renewable Energy technologies has seen an increase in use of products such as solar panels for electricity generation in areas with low access to electricity.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, low generation capacity is the major challenge in ensuring that households are connected to the national grid. Though governments have implemented the Rural Electrification Program, the focus is on the trading centers with proven economic activities and not actual households per say.

INDEPENDENT POWER PRODUCERS

In addressing inadequate power generation capacity, Sub-Saharan countries have resorted to
Independent Power Producers, using power purchase agreements to boost the power available in the National grid. An independent power producer (IPP) or non-utility generator (NUG) is an entity, which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users. NUGs may be privately held facilities, corporations, cooperatives such as rural solar or wind energy producers, and non-energy industrial concerns capable of feeding excess energy into the system.

DECENTRALIZED ENERGY SYSTEM

The coming in of IPPs has benefited Sub-Saharan countries not only in improving grid stability but also, introduction of mini grids that are supplying electricity to a designated rural area and village, creating a Decentralized energy system.

The least expensive way to achieve universal electricity access is through use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy grid connected
systems have the potential to deliver affordable and clean electricity access to millions, coupled with stand alone photovoltaic systems. Decentralized solutions as a whole are the least-cost way to provide power to more than half of the population gaining access to electricity.

ROOFTOP POWER GENERATION


Imagine every household in sub-Saharan Africa having its own power generating unit, a rooftop with solar panels with a battery bank, and being able to sell excess power generated to the national
utility grid, using net metering and grid tie solutions. Im as much as access to electricity can increase, economic growth can be fostered as households will be able to make money as power producers.

WHAT IS NET METERING
Net metering is a system that allows domestic or commercial home owners who generate their own electricity using solar panels to sale their surplus electricity generated back to the national grid. a rate has to be agreed between the utility provider and the home owner.Then, at night or other times when your solar panels are under-producing, you pull energy from the grid and use these credits to offset the costs of that energy.

How Net Metering Works

Net meters work in that they generate data on how much electricity is being generated and how much electricity is being consumed at that household.
The data is then accumulated in the appropriate register over the billing cycle and the bill is calculated basing on the rate agreed.
Under net metering, the electricity generated by your system and consumed in your home, you pay nothing for this electricity. Whenever the solar power system generation exceeds your homes consumption, this excess amount is exported to the grid and you may earn a feed-in tariff for this exported solar electricity. Check your energy retailers solar feed-in tariff policy.

Taking advantage of power inter-connection agreements, Sub-Saharan African countries can benefit alot from net metering options in ensuring the available of a regional stable grid whilst empowering citizens economic wis

FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: SAFETY BEYOND THE PANDEMIC

food Safety

A Food Safety Management System has to have a system that enables the identification of Product lots with respect to the batches of raw materials, processing and delivery records. in order to do so, a business sets a traceability system for such.

TRACEABILTY SYSTEM
An effective traceability system has to be able to identify incoming material from the suppliers and the Distribution route taken, process flows involved up to the end Product. It is therefore required that the records for traceability be kept and maintained per adventure there is Product withdrawal or unsafe products handling. This ensures that the actual raw materials used for that production batch are tracked effectively so that only that affected batch is withdrawn.

In cases where products do not conform to the set standards, measures have to be set in order to ensure that the system runs according to set standards. This is the control of nonconforming products. There are two ways of controlling nonconformity:

CORRECTIONS
when critical limits for Critical Control Points are exceeded, or in cases where there is loss of control of Operational prerequisite programs, affected products have to be identified and controlled in accordance to their use and purpose. Well documented procedures have to be set, with details on how they are identified in order to ensure that they are handled properly. For such, colour codes are sometimes used to mark the affected end products.

Traceability

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
Corrective actions are initiated when critical limits are exceeded or when there is a lack of conformity with the set Operational prerequisite programs. a business sets procedures that specify the pertinent actions in order to identify and eliminate the cause of nonconforming products, so as to prevent the repetition, and also, restore the system back to control to avoid further nonconformance. The actions include but are not Limited to:

  1. Review of nonconforming products
  2. Determining causes of nonconformities
    3.setting required actions to ensure that nonconformities do not occur
  3. keeping records of the corrective actions taken

HANDLING OF POTENTIALLY UNSAFE PRODUCTS
A Business has to take action on all nonconforming products so as to ensure that the products do not enter the food supply system and market. as such, the business has to ensure that before entering the food supply system,

1.Food Hazards connected to the nonconformance are reduced to the acceptable levels. for example, Aflatoxin levels, in groundnuts

  1. Associated food safety Hazards are to be reduced to appropriate acceptable levels identified before entering the food supply market.

In cases where products leave the control of the the business and are on the market, and still, are determined to be unsafe, the business has to notify all stakeholders and initiate s Product recall or withdrawal. this has to be documented for record purposes.

After the recall, there is need to evaluate the Product batch in-order to find out whether reprocessing or reworking reduce and or eliminate the Hazards and so certified as acceptable.

If the product lot is not acceptable for release on the food supply market, even after reprocessing, then it has to be destructed or disposed off as waste.

HYDROPOWER:FROM WATER TO ELECTRICITY

Power Station Schematic

Hydropower is the most common and widely used renewable resource for generating electricity. The electricity produced varies, ranging from as small as KW to GW which is large. The worlds’s earliest electricity distribution in 1818 was generated using hydro turbines whose rated capacity was in KW, and by 2008, hydropower capacity had rached about 874GW. As of date, There is more than 1,300G of installed hydropower capacity globally.
According to the International Renewable
Energy Agency (IRENA)’s Global Renewables Outlook 2020, this figure will need to grow by around 60 per cent by 2050 to help limit the rise in global temperature to well below 2 degrees
Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Such growth would help generate some 600,000 skilled jobs over the coming decade according to IRENA and would require an estimated investment of US$1.7 trillion.

WHAT IS HYDROPOWER
Power generated by converting the potential energy of fast flowing or falling water and kinetic energy to mechanical Energy using a turbine. When the turbine is coupled to a generator, hydroelectricity is produced. Hydropower output depends on annual rainfall, water catchment and,of course, installed capacity.

In Africa, hydropower is the main renewable resource with over 37GW of installed capacity. Though i has the highest untapped potential in tje world, only 11% has been utilised, with an annual growth rate of 4.4% in the last 10 years.

Climate related effects are very high in Africa as compared to other continents, despite the fact that the continent produces a very minimal percentage of the global CO2 Emmissions as a result of electricity generation, thereby impacting hydropower generation and capacity.

The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest capacity hydroelectric power Station. It has 34 generators, with 32 of them being the main generators with each having a 700MW capacity. The two other generators are plant power generators, and each has a capacity of 50MW. This makes the Total capacity to be 22,500MW.

The Three Gorges Dam

TURBINE
There are two types of turbines; Impulse turbine and Reaction turbine. Impulse turbines are built in such a way that water flow hits the turbine as a jet in an open environment with the power originating from the kinetic energy of the flow. Reaction turbines work whereby the turbine is totally embedded in the water and powered from the pressure drop across the turbine. The commonly most used reaction turbine is called Francis turbines, and it incoperates a runner in its principle of operation to allow the water push conyinuously against the blades aided by stay veins and guide vains.

Cross section of a Francis Turbine

LEVERAGING RENEWABLE ENERGY:THE SOURCE AND THE RESOURCE

RENEWABLE ENERGY:SOURCE – Hydropower – Solar – Wind – Geothermal – Biomass – Hydrogen – Ocean/Tidal

HYDROPOWER; Power generated by converting the potential energy of fast flowing (kinetic energy) or falling water to mechanical Energy using a turbine. When the turbine is coupled to a generator, hydroelectricity is produced.

Water intake dam for hydropower generation

SOLARPOWER; Energy produced from the sun’s radiation and converted into useful thermal heat using solar collectors or electrical energy using solar panels.

WINDPOWER: Power generated by converting the kinetic Energy of wind to mechanical power (water pumping) or electricity using Wind turbines.

Wind turbines

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY;Energy produced by harnessing the heat trapped beneath the earth’s surface for electricity generation, hot water supply and heat pump applications.

BIOENERGY BIOMASS ENERGY; Energy derived from plant and animal material with their wastes and residues. BIOFUEL;Transformation of the initial material by chemical and biological processes.(methane gas,briquettes)

TIDAL ENERGY; Power Produced by harnessing the tidal flow and tidal range of tidal currents at specific locations, in coastal and inter-island channels.

Newly constructed tidal power generating turbine mounted on a test platform.

BUSINESS CANVAS MODEL: THE WHY, HOW AND WHAT FOR UPSTARTS

who are my customers? How does my business make money? what is my value proposition?

These are some of the questions most start up entrepreneurs struggle with and spend a lot of time figuring out. At the same time, potential investors do look for Answers to these questions, which in-turn act as a basis in finding out how Investment ready a business is.

one tool that helps start up entrepreneurs find Answers to their most pressing questions in turning their business idea to a working business model is the Business Canvas Model, also known as the Lean Enterprise Blueprint. The Model encompass the why, how and what of the business at hand.

The key business aspects to consider in answering the pressing questions and generating a Lean Enterprise Model include:

PROBLEM DEFINITION
The problem your product or service seek to solve has to be clearly defined, be it access to Clean energy, portable water or value addition to agro produce. Evidence must show that there is a pressing issue indeed in that area you seek to solve with your product, taking into account other alternatives available.

SOLUTION
A straight to the point statement on how you seek to solve the problem is key in driving the message home. it has to tackle how the product or service fits in solving the problem.

VALUE PROPOSITION
This section entails how unique your product or service. What makes it stand out from the rest being offered for the same problem you seek to solve.

REVENUE GENERATION
A picture of how will the business make money is what is required in this box. be it customers paying for a product or a service, or a subscription fee per month or quartely, but an estimate atleast has to be provided.

KEY RESOURCES
be it human resource, machinery office space, factory building, this segment is for all key resources that will enable you deliver the service or manufacture the product to get the uniqueness desired.

COSTS
all expenditures involved have to be well taken into account. this includes cost of raw materials, utility bills, machinery, distribution.

CUSTOMERS
This segment enables you to have a clear picture of who your customer is. People will like your product or service but a segment will be willing to pay for it. As an Entrepreneur, you have to analyse those who will pay for your product.

CHANNELS
Distribution is key in getting the product to customers, otherwise the business will not take off at all. You have to point out how the product will get to the customer either directly, or via channles such as retailers and wholesalers or via the internet.

KEY PARTNERS
The business canvas Model provides an entrepreneur with this segment where organisations, suppliers and other businesses you need to work with in order to make it are listed.

KEY ACTIVITIES
This involves what goes into the final product or service provided. That is, the flow diagram, or steps from input, process steps involved to deired output, raw material to processing to final product.

In addition, an entrepreneur has to take note of the social corporate responsibility, job creation and livelihood improvement as well as environment protection an zero carbon emmissions in generating a Lean Enterprise Model. The model leaves room for reworking, refining and continuous improvement.

SOLAR ENERGY:PHOTOVOLTAICS

Solar Panels in Atacama Desert, Chile

PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) GENERATION:- The production of power caused by photons of electromagnetic radiation separating positive and negative charge carriers in absorbing material. Semiconductor technology field where sunlight is converted to Electricity.

SOLAR PV CELL:- Component that generates Electricity by using light energy from the sun, producing electrical current.

SOLAR PANEL:- Sometimes called Solar mbodule, is a single photovoltaic panel on which solar PV cells are assembled and connected. (connection in series to increase output voltage).

SOLAR PV ARRAY:- Arrangement and connection of solar panels that generate electricity as a whole/system. (specified amount of Electricity in KiloWatts).

SOLAR STAND ALONE SYSTEM:- A solar system that uses a solar panel or a solar PV array to provide Electricity during the day and coupled to a battery bank that stores power produced and can be utilised by the electrical loads connected.

SOLAR FARM:- Large scale solar PV array installation that functions as a solar power station and can be used to provide off grid electricity to a village/community/rural area/factory or can be connected to the national grid system.

HAZARD ANALYSIS:UNDERSTANDING THE HACCP PLAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND IMPLEMEMTATION

Food Safety Hazards can occur at any stage of the food chain. Its is therefore essential to place adequate control measures throughout the food chain.

Basing on the specifications of the international standard, a food Safety management system that combines; interactive communication, system management, prerequisite program and HACCP principles to ensure foos safety along the food chain, up to the point of final consumption is required.

The benefits of implementing a Food Safety Management System based on ISO 22000 are:-

  1. Risk of food borne illeness is reduced, helping to provide products are safe for the consumer according to their intended use.
  2. Employees become more aware of food Safety precautions and Hazard
  1. likelihood of food recall is reduced
  2. Business gets the opportunity for international trade markets
  3. Product loss is minimized
  4. Conformity to food Safety policy of the organisation

Hazard Analysis is the key to an effective food safety management system. By conducting a Hazard Analysis, knowledge required to establish an effective combination of control measures is collected and well organised. By doing so, it helps to determine and document why other Hazards need to be controlled by one organization and why others need not to.

Prior to generating a HACCP Plan, preliminary steps to enable Hazard analysis have to be taken. A food safety team combining multi-disciplinary knowledge and experience has to be apointed and records kept therewith.

Product characteristics from raw materials, ingredients, product contact materials, end product characteristics and intended use have to be well documented with records on such kept.

A flow diagram has to be prepared for the process involved in producing the product. The development of a flow diagram helps in providing a basis for evaluating the possible occurance, increase or introduction of food Safety Hazards. Food safety team has to verify the accuracy of the flow diagrams on site. all steps taken in the processing of the product and the control measures put is place have to be described to such an extent required to conduct the hazard analysis.

HAZARD ANALYSIS
as defined by Codex Alimentarius, HACCP is a food Safety management system based on the following Seven principles:

  1. Conducting a Hazard Analysis : – Hazard identification and determination of acceptable levels, Hazard assessment, selection and assessment of control measures.
    This helps in establishing the operational prerequisite programmes (PRPs)
  2. selection of control measures.
  3. Establish critical limits
  4. System development for the monitoring of critical control points
  5. Corrections and corrective action(s) to be taken if critical limits are exceeded
  6. Establish procedures for verification to confirm that HACCP system is working effectively
  7. Records of of monitoring : – documentation and records concerning all procedures appropriate to these principles and their application.

There are 12 Tasks involved in the application of HACCP:

TASK 1: SELECT A HACCP TEAM
the team has to come up with the food safety policy and document it as well as define the scope of the HACCP Plan for the organisation.

TASK 2: PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Product characteristics including raw materials, ingredients and end Product characteristics.

TASK 3: IDENTIFY INTENDED USE
The expected handling of the end Product. Groups of users and consumers where necessary have to be identified for each product.

TASK 4: FLOW DIAGRAM DESIGN
For both process and product categories. A plant schematic has to be prepared as well.

TASK 5: FLOW DIAGRAM ON-SITE CHECKING
The food Safety team has to verifyhow accurate the flow diagram is.

TASK 6:HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF ACCEPTABLE LEVELS
all potential Hazards associated with each step have,to be listed and a Hazard Analysis has to be conducted. Measures to control the identified Hazards have to be considered.

TASK 7: DETERMINE CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (CCP)
According to the MS-ISO22000:2005, this is a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety Hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level. A decision tree can be used in deterrmining CCP.

TASK 8:ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS FOR EACH CCP
Critical limits that are established are used to ensure that the identified acceptable level of the food safety Hazard in the end Product is not exceeded. the have to be measurable.

TASK 9:ESTABLISH A MONITORING SYSTEM FOR EACH CCP
The monitoring sytem established for each CCP is used to demonstrate that the CCP is in control.

TASK 10: ESTABLISH CORRECTIVE ACTION
Action has to be taken when critical limits are exceeded,thus from the monitoring results. The actions shall ensure that the cause of nonconformity is identified, parameters controlled at CCP are brought back under control and recurrence is prevented. This,has to be documented. The HACCP Plan has to specify planned corrections and corrective action.

TASK 11: ESTABLISH VERIFICATION PROCEDURES
Verification planning involves defining the purpose, methods, frequencies and responsibilities for the verification activities. Verification activities confirm that; Hazard levels are withim identified acceptable levels, HACCP Plan is implemented and effective and that input to the Hazard analysis is continually updated among others.

TASK 12:ESTABLISH DOCUMENTATION AND RECORD KEEPING
Documents have to be controlled and records have to be maintained in order to provide evidence of conformity to requirements and evidence of the effectiveness of the food safety management system.

FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION : PROMOTING AND SUSTAINING SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES DURING COVID-19 AND AFTER

Food safety is related to the presence of food-borne hazards in food at the point
of consumption
• It is a concept that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared
and/or eaten according to its intended use
• It must be noted that the is related to the occurrence of food safety hazards and
does not include other human health aspects related to, for example, malnutrition

• Food safety hazard is a biological, chemical or physical agent in food, or
condition of food, with the potential to cause an adverse health effect
• In the food chain, the introduction of food safety hazard can occur at any stage,
and so, adequate control through out the food chain is essential

The planning and realization of safe food begins right from the primary producer
• In the food chain, crop producers/farmers are the primary producers
• Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) must be followed in contributing towards food
safety

• The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene lay a firm foundation for ensuring food
hygiene
• They follow the food chain from primary production through to the final consumer,
highlighting the key hygiene controls at each stage
• They recommend an Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) base approach
whenever possible in-order to enhance food safety as described in the Hazard Analysis
Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and guidelines for its application, CAC/RCP 1-
1969 (Rev.4-2003) general principles of food hygiene

• Codex Alimentarius or “Food Code”: is a collection of standards, codes of
practice, guidelines and other recommendations adopted by the CAC.
• Codex standards ensure that food is safe and can be traded
• Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) is an intergovernmental body
• “Codex Alimentarius is about safe, god food for everyone, everywhere”
http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/about-codex/en/

Customer illness or dissatisfaction may result in:

  • Unfavorable publicity Loss of customers, volume and profit
  • Legal action or prosecution
  • Food spoilage
  • Product/dollar spoilage Unsightly product/unsanitary conditions,

Each segment of the food industry must provide the conditions necessary to protect
food while it is under their control
• The Pre-requisite programmes (PRPs) are equivalent to the expectations as per
requirement of the recommended international Code of Practice General Principles for
Food Hygiene
• In Malawi, the PRPs are adopted from the codex international standard to the local MS
21 standard by the Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS)
• This standard is available at the Malawi Bureau of Standards for sale

• The PRPs assist in controlling:
• The likelihood of introducing food safety hazards to the product through the
work environment
• Biological, chemical and physical contamination of the product(s), including
cross contamination between products
• Food safety hazard levels in the product and product processing environment

PRE-REQUISITE PROGRAMMES
EXAMPLES

  1. GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP)
    • These are practices that provide guidance in the production of products that meet food
    safety, quality and government requirements to ensure the product is safe for human
    consumption
  2. GOOD HYGINE PRACTICES (GHP)
    • All practices regarding the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and
    suitability of food at al stages of the food chain
    • Good hygiene is essential to ensure the foods we produce and sell are safe to consume and
    free from contamination

PRPs

  1. ESTABLISHMENT: DESIGN AND FACILITY
    • The facility should be located away from potential source of contamination
    • Area should not be prone to pests infection
    • Location should support easy removal of wastes both solid and liquid
    • Location of equipment should permit easy maintenance and cleaning

PRPs

  1. INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND FITTINGS
    • All the structures in facility should be easy to clean and maintain and be
    appropriate able to be disinfected
    • Floor and wall surfaces should be impervious and non toxic and allow
    adequate drainage and cleaning
    PRPs
  2. INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND FITTINGS
    • Ceilings and over head fixtures should be constructed to minimize the build up
    of dirt and condensation
    • Working surfaces that come in direct contact with food should be in good
    condition, durable and easy to clean, maintain and disinfect

PRPs

  1. INTERNAL STRUCUTRE AND FITTINGS
    • The raw material receiving area must be in a good status
    • Raw materials store must be in good status
    • Packaging material store must be in a good status
    • Weighing and formulation areas must be in good status

PRPs

  1. INTERNAL STRUCUTRE AND FITTINGS
    • Personal hygiene facilities and toilets must be in good status
    • Water used for washing in-contact surfaces should be portable water
    • Drainage and waste treatment/disposal
    • lighting

PRPs

Food safety rubber stamp
  1. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS (RAW MATERIAL/PRODUCT CONTROL)
    • Incoming food and non food raw material including packaging material
    inspection procedures should be defined (tests, acceptable limits,
    specification and storage)
    • Raw materials rejected or on hold should be segregated to prevent
    accidental usage
    • The final products should be tested against specifications regularly
  2. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS (RAW MATERIAL/PRODUCT CONTROL)
    • Product on hold or rejected should be suitably identified and kept suitable for
    further action
    • Final product storage conditions should be free from any potential source of
    cross contamination
    • Corrective action plan for response to customer complaint should be
    available

PRPs

  1. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS (TRACEABILITY/RECAL)
    • final product should be traceable to ingredients and raw materials
    • Production code and use by date should be mention on the product
    • Established procedure recall/withdrawal should be documented

PRPs

  1. PEST CONTROL PROGRAM
    • The building should be kept in a good repair to prevent pest access and
    eliminate potential breading sites
    • All outside openings require adequate protection preventing access to pests
    inside the processing hall by taking suitable measures
    • Both inside and outside areas should be kept clean to prevent harbourage
    and infestation
Pest control

PRPs

  1. PEST CONTROL PROGRAM
    • Pest control program should be written (intervals, pesticides etc)
    • Current diagram of bait stations and traps should be available
    • Reports on inspection of traps/ bait stations, pesticide use etc. at specified
    intervals should be available
    • Approved pesticides should be used

PRPs

  1. PEST CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS
    • There should be no evidence of scrap collection near exterior
    • No evidence of pests in interior
    • Spraying should be performed only during non-processing hours
    • Processing areas and equipment, food contact surfaces should be rinsed prior
    to production start up after spraying and written procedure should be
    maintained

PRPs

  1. SANITATION AND CLEANING PROGRAMS

5.1. SANITATION PROGRAME
• Sanitation procedures and schedules must be made with assignment of people
responsible and frequencies for the facility, including floor drains and toilet facility,
in contact surfaces and equipment including conveyors, moulds, trays and gloves
• Personnel should be trained in sanitation procedures
• Cleaners and sanitizers approved for food contact/processing should be used

PRPs
5.2. SANITATION PROCEDURES
• Cleaning and sanitation procedures should be performed only during
non-processing hours or in secured areas
• Equipment must be disassembled for proper cleaning of intricate parts
• Sanitizer concentration should be monitored with suitable means

PRPs
5.3. WATER AND SEWAGE
• water supply must be from a potable source and should be periodically
tested for suitability/portability
• Sufficient water storage facility
• method of cleaning and area where utensils are washed

PRPs
5.4. GENERAL SANITATION
• Adequate hand washing facility stations/points should be available,
equipped with soap, hand drying and hand sanitizing facilities
• Equipment/chemicals used for cleaning sanitation should be stored
separately from custodial tools

PRPs

  1. OPERATION METHODS AND PRACTICES

6.1. PRODUCTION/PROCESSING AREA
• Foot baths, uniform change facility, protective garments as head gear, gloves should be
provided
• All equipment directly in contact with food, should be approved for food use
• Packaging material/containers should not be in direct contact with floor
• Packaging material to be stored and transported properly to avoid cross contamination
• Unprotected light bulbs or glass should not be present in production areas

PRPs
6.2. TEMPERATURE CONTROL

Temperature control


• The heating/baking process should have effective time and temperature
controlling system to maintain product at requisite temperature
• Temperature of ingredients (esp. milk) to be checked during open vat
pasteurization process in sweetmeat making
• Cooling process for products should be covered and monitored to avoid
any cross contamination

PRPs

  1. ESTABLISHMENT: PERSONAL HYGINE
    • Wash hand signs should be posted in rest rooms and hand wash stations
    • Employees should effectively wash and sanitize hands up to the elbow
    • Production personnel should wear clean outer garments or uniforms
    • Training on GMP should be provided and documented for employees
    • Clean protective garments should worn properly, e.g. head gear should completely cover hair
Personal hygiene

PRPs

  1. ESTABLISHMENT: PERSONAL HYGINE
    • Clean beard net should be used to cover all facial hair
    • Jewelry, wrist watches, fingernail polish should not be worn in processing area
    • Smoking, tobacco use, food, drink or gum should not be permitted in the processing
    areas
    • Personnel with open cuts, sores or illnesses should not handle food in production process
    • Employees should wash hands upon returning to work station from breaks

PRPs

  1. BUILDING AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM

8.1 . BUILDING AND GROUNDS
• Ceilings, walls, floors should be in good repair to prevent rodents, insects or
leaks. Cracks and crevices inside the building should be sealed to <0.25 inch
width
• Floors should have adequate drainage to prevent standing water. Drainage
outside and inside should be given equal importance

PRPs

  1. BUILDING AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM

8.1 . BUILDING AND GROUNDS
• Paint/surface coating on walls or ceilings should not flake or chip out
especially near processing lines
• Screens to outside should be in good repair

PRPs
8.2. MAINTENANCE AND EQUIPMENT
• Maintenance personnel should follow GMP and personnel hygiene principles
• Equipment should be designed for food contact and used properly
• Ventilation should be adequate to prevent excessive odours and
condensation
• Lubricants should not leak into food products from equipment
• Transport vehicles